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: Every year on March 23rd is "World Meteorological Day." On the eve of World Meteorological Day 2015, Zheng Guoguang, head of the China Meteorological Administration, wrote: Since the middle of the last century, China's climate has changed significantly, with temperatures rising by an average of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade, almost twice as much as global warming. Since the turn of the century, the direct economic losses caused by meteorological disasters amount to 1 per cent of gross domestic product, eight times the global average for the same period. Climate change has reduced yields of major crops such as wheat, corn and soybeans.
climate change is linked to emissions, which improperly warm the world and increase pollution and haze. Therefore, in order to alleviate the global warming trend, reduce pollution, there is no other way than energy conservation and emission reduction. In the discussion of climate change and pollution, housing pollution emissions are often ignored, this paper discusses housing pollution emissions and some countries to take major measures to this end.
1 Build 100 square meters of housing coal consumption 25 tons, with these coal power generation for a family for 54 years
Scientific tests determined that the production of a ton of steel coal consumption of 1000 kg (a better domestic steel enterprises, tons of steel consumption coal also reached 948 kg), the production of a ton of cement coal consumption 175 kg, the production of a cubic meter of clay brick coal consumption 91 kg, the production of a ton of ceramic coal consumption 2400 kg, below, we calculate the construction of 100 square meters of reinforced concrete housing needs to consume about how much energy equivalent to tons of coal.
100 square meters of housing needs 7.5 tons of rebar, which needs 7.5 tons of coal to smelt.
100 square metres of housing requires 47 cubic metres of concrete (weighing 122.2 tonnes) with a density of 2.6. Concrete is composed of cement, sand and stone (with a ratio of 1:2.3:4.2), and the production of each ton of concrete requires 0.133 tons of cement, 0.31 tons of sand and 0.56 tons of stone.
100 square meters of house, you need to consume 16.3 tons of cement, 31 tons of sand, 68.43 tons of stone. Production of 16.3 tons of cement requires 2.9 tons of coal, 31 tons of sand requires 16 kg of coal, production of 68.43 tons of stone requires 24 kg of coal.
ask, why does it take so much energy to produce sand and stone? This is because China's river sand shortage, a lot of concrete production has to use sand-making mechanism sand, need to consume a lot of energy. The production of stones, first with explosives to collapse, and then will be blasted by the stones with a rolling mill to suitable for concrete stone, but also need to consume a lot of energy.
100 square meters of housing needs 3 tons of ceramics as decoration materials, the consumption of coal 7.2 tons.
Now the windows of the northern houses are generally double glazing, the production of float glass per kilogram requires 10298 kilojoules of heat, the production of a kilogram of glass needs to consume 1.5 kilograms of coal, 100 square meters of housing according to the need for glass 600 kilograms, a total of 900 kilograms of coal consumption.
100 square meters of housing only steel, cement, stone, sand, ceramics, glass 6 kinds of building materials need to consume 18.54 tons of coal.
In addition, the transportation of various building materials also need fuel, housing construction process needs cranes and other electrical machinery, plus plastic,
and other building materials, the construction of a 100 square meters of housing energy equivalent coal consumption will not be less than 25 tons, this 25 tons of coal can generate 714294 kW. According to China's National Development and Reform Commission, the average household in China uses 110 kilowatt hours of electricity per month, and 100 square meters of housing consumes enough energy to power a household for 54.1 years.
2 100 square meters of housing emissions 61 tons of carbon dioxide, generating 6 tons of construction waste
We continue to look at the construction of a 100 square meters of housing, how much emissions, how much pollution?
2.44 tons of carbon dioxide from burning 1 ton of coal, and the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted by burning 25 tons of coal needed to build a 100-square-meter house is 61 tons.
, the construction industry belongs to the high dust industry, the demolition of old building dust, the construction of new building dust. The shorter the life span of a building, the more frequently old and new are demolished, and the more dust is released into the atmosphere, the more serious the haze becomes.
According to the Ministry of Housing and Construction research report, the amount of construction waste in China has accounted for 30%-40% of the total amount of urban garbage, per 10,000 square meters of construction process, resulting in 500-600 tons of construction waste, and 7000-12,000 tons of construction waste per 10,000 square meters of demolition of old buildings. China demolishes 40% of all old buildings each year, with an average life expectancy of just 30 years. China produces 400 million tons of construction waste each year, which is transported, treated and stored, polluting the environment and taking up a lot of land. During the construction of 100 square meters, 6 tons of construction waste will also be generated.
building life is much longer than ours, for example, the average life expectancy in the UK is 132 years. In foreign countries, old buildings are the symbol of civilization, European countries more than 100 years old buildings abound, many buildings in a prominent location marked the construction age, which is a sign of the builder's self-confidence, indicating that the building is durable, passed down from generation to generation.
3100 square meters of housing is built, winter heating and summer air conditioning also consume a lot of energy
first of all, winter heating. In northern China, for example, every winter heating coal consumption of 20 kg per square meter, 100 square meters of housing heating will consume 2 tons of coal.
is summer air conditioning. We according to the total power of 100 square meters of housing air conditioning 5 kW, the average daily power start 6 hours calculation, one day is 30 kW, a month is 900 kW, the summer 4 months is 3600 kW, 3600 kW of electricity needs to consume 1.26 tons of coal.
, 100 square meters of housing, heating and air conditioning alone consume 3.26 tons of coal per year. The bigger the house, the greater the energy consumption of heating and air conditioning, and the bigger the house will produce more pollution and emit more greenhouse gases.
accounts for a large share of China's GDP, while China's energy efficiency is low, and a large share of the construction industry means more energy is wasted. According to the International Energy Agency, the world emitted 0.59 kg of carbon dioxide per dollar of GDP in 2010, Chinese mainland 1.88 kg.
already the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide, the Chinese government has pledged to meet its target of reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product by 40-45% by 2020 compared with 2005. If we do not make up our minds to strictly control speculation and reduce vacant housing, this will inevitably increase carbon emissions, making emission reduction targets difficult to achieve.
The Ministry of Land and Resources of China and the Ministry of Housing, Urban and Rural Construction jointly issued the Notice on Optimizing the Supply Structure of Housing and Land for 2015 to Promote the Steady and Healthy Development of the Real Estate Market on March 25, 2015, calling on the departments to join forces to strengthen supervision over market order and supply. Let's take a look at how some countries and regions regulate the real estate market.
4 housing vacancy rate is a barometer of the real estate market, is an important indicator of housing regulation
After years of research by American scholars, it has been found that the vacancy rate of about 5% belongs to the normal range.
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