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    Home > Biochemistry News > Microbiology News > ISME Journal | Microorganisms have made new progress in the field of glacier cryogenic bacteria research

    ISME Journal | Microorganisms have made new progress in the field of glacier cryogenic bacteria research

    • Last Update: 2021-05-10
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Glaciers have always been a hotspot in the field of extreme microbiology, which contains abundant low-temperature microorganisms.
    The glacier ecological environment has endowed glaciers with microbial species, genetic and metabolic diversity.

    Glacial microorganisms are ideal resources for discovering new materials, new genes, new mechanisms and new functions.

    Xin Yuhuazheng, senior engineer of the Institute of Microbiology, etc.
    , has been committed to the collection and preservation of glacier cryogenic bacteria resources, system evolution and ecological adaptation mechanism for many years.
    They have accumulated more than 4,000 strains of cryogenic bacteria from 11 glaciers in China, which are common in China.
    The Microbial Culture Collection and Management Center has established a unique resource bank of glacial low-temperature bacteria in my country.

     Under the leadership of Researcher Dong Xiuzhu from the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a multi-omics study was carried out on 47 strains of Flavobacterium.
    Genome analysis revealed that 37 strains contained the proteorhodopsin (PR) gene, and the other 10 strains did not.
    Contains PR gene.

    PR protein is a light-driven transmembrane proton pump, coupled with a retinal molecule, which can receive light energy, pump protons from intracellular to extracellular, and form a potential energy gradient on both sides of the cell membrane to convert light energy into ATP.

    At present, it is generally believed that PR determines the light-promoted growth phenotype of Flavobacterium.

    However, light growth experiments found that F.
    glacialis showed light-promoting growth properties regardless of whether it was carrying PR genes, missing PR genes, or artificially constructed PR-deficient strains.

    Through comparative genomics, transcriptome and phenotypic experiments, it is found that under hypoxia and oligotrophic conditions, the photo-growth phenotype of Flavobacterium glaciens is related to the synthesis of pigments such as zeaxanthin, including zeaxanthin and tomato red.
    Flavobacterium glacialis with β-carotenoids such as pigments can provide photoprotection and maintain cell membrane function at low temperatures, while Flavobacterium glacialis containing only yellow pigments cannot grow under light conditions.

    The study found that PR may not be a key gene for light-promoting growth that has been generally recognized internationally, and there may be a new light/oxygen regulation mechanism.

    Alpine glaciers are generally located in high-altitude areas, and the surface layer of the glacier has high intensity of light radiation.
    There are bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae that can use light energy on the surface of the glacier.

    This study found for the first time that the growth rate of non-photosynthetic bacteria on the surface of the glacier significantly increased under low oxygen and light conditions, revealing that light has a very important impact on the surface ecosystem of the glacier, and found that zeaxanthin and other pigments are important ecological factors in the glacier environment.
    Significance, it may affect the adaptation and population diffusion of Flavobacterium in the surface environment of the glacier.

    The relevant research results were published in the international mainstream journal ISME Journal with the title "Light stimulates anoxic and oligotrophic growth of glacial Flavobacterium strains that produce zeaxanthin" on January 15, 2021.

     Researcher Dong Xiuzhu, Senior Engineer Xin Yuhuazheng, and Senior Engineer Zhou Yuguangzheng of the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences are the co-corresponding authors of the paper.
    Senior Engineer Liu Qing, Assistant Researcher Li Wei, and Researcher Liu Zhai from Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences are the co-first authors.

    This research is another important progress (Liu et al.
    , 2020) following the discovery by the Center for Bacteria Protection in the evolutionary mechanism of low-temperature tolerance of Cryobacterium, a rare group of glaciers, and has been approved by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
    stand by.

     1) Liu Qing#, Li Wei#, Liu Di#, Li lingyan, Li Jie, Lv Na, Liu Fei, Zhu Baoli, Zhou Yuguang*, Xin Yuhua*, Dong Xiuzhu* (2021).
    Light stimulates anoxic and oligotrophic growth of glacial Flavobacterium strains that produce zeaxanthin.
    ISME J.
    2) Liu Qing, Song Weizhi, Zhou Yuguang, Dong Xiuzhu*, Xin Yuhua*.
    Phenotypic divergence of thermotolerance: Molecular basis and cold adaptive evolution related to intrinsic DNA flexibility of glacier-inhabiting Cryobacterium strains.
    Environ Microbiol 22, 1409-1420.
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