Abstract: In order to study the effect of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of the red intestine, the fermentation technique was applied to the red intestine products without fermentation process, and the lactic acid fermentation agent which can improve the quality of the red intestine was screened. 7 commercial lactic acid fermentation agents commonly used in fermented meat products (Xucca staphylococcus aureus (THM-17), Xucca staphylococcus bacteria and liquidity lactobacillus (PRO-MIX5), Xucca staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus Xanobacillus (WBL-45), Xuccoccal Staphylococcus aureus and plant Lactobacillus (VHI-41), Xucane staphylococcus and scoundrel spour (SHI-59), Staphylococcus aureus,glycoccus and xylitosa (WBX-43) and saccharine cocci, xylitosa staphylococcus aureus, lactic acid tablets (VBM-60)) and 8 monobacteria (BofA, Lactobacillus, Xacoccal Lactobacillus, Sucrose Cocci Xycoccita, Staphylococcus aureus, tin-creamer-2, plant Lactobacillus) with 107 CFU/g inoculation to the marinated meat filling, after mixing enemas at 35 degrees C, 80% humidity conditions fermentation 12 h, Samples to determine the number of lactic acid bacteria and the total number of bacteria after fermentation samples, and then by drying, cooking, smoking, baking the finished product, to determine its sensory, pH, color difference, texture, nitrite, nitrate, bioamine and N-nitrosamine content and other indicators. The results showed that the application effect of 2 lactic acid bacteria fermentation agents in 15 fermentation agents was good, and the pH of the products produced was 5.26 and 5.04, respectively, the color was beautiful, the elasticity was moderate, and the nitrite residue was (10.84, 10.13 mg/kg) low, can significantly inhibit the formation of N-nitrosamines (N-dimethyl nitrosamine content is 1.29, 2.51 mg/kg, respectively), the total amount of bioamines is low. As a result, xylitose and plant Lactobacillus can significantly improve the safety quality of red intestine products.
red intestine is a traditional meat products in China, in the production process will often add nitrite, and the red intestine is slightly acidic, nitric acid ions 1 in this microacid environment is easy to produce N2O3 and other nitrogen oxides, meat products Rich in protein, will produce amino acids, bioamines and other amines, the combination of the two will produce a strong carcinogen N-nitrosamine, heating and cooking process more promote the formation of N-nitrosamine, so that the red intestine has a certain food safety risk. Therefore, reducing the content of the precursor nitrite, amine and degradation of N-nitrosamines in the red intestine is the research direction of most scholars. Studies have shown that lactic acid bacteria (e.g. lactobacillus, lactus, etc.) can degrade nitrites, and some lactic acid bacteria (e.g. Lactus) can significantly degrade bioamines, and contain bioamine degradation genes, plant Lactobacillus can significantly reduce the content of thai fermented sausages. Studies have shown that some natural plant extracts, such as ginger, polysaccual fruit powder, chlorogenic acid, and cauliflower sacinne, can inhibit the formation of N-nitrosamines, and some lactic acid bacteria, such as blithele, can significantly reduce the N-nitrosamine content in the dried intestines. Xiao Yaqing found that the surface protein located in the outermost layer of the cell wall of lactobacillus sugar has the role of degradation of N-dimethylatimethylamine (N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDMA) and N-diethythanedia (N-nitrosodiethylamine, NDEA), indicating that different types of lactobacillus can affect the formation of N-nitrosamines in food, and different types of lactobacillus effect differences.
this study selected 7 commercial compound bacteria commonly used as fermenting agents of meat products and 8 kinds of monobacteria used in the processing of red intestine products, to study the effects of different lactic acid fermentation agents on the quality of red intestine products. Red intestine belongs to the product of the non-fermentation process, long-term fermentation will destroy its original flavor, but also produce a large number of N-nitrosamine precursor amines. Based on the existing research, this study inoculated 15 kinds of lactic acid bacteria fermentation agent into the marinated meat filling, in 35 degrees C, 80% humidity conditions of moderate fermentation 12 h after the cooking, to study the fermentation process of the red intestine finished sensory, pH, chromatic difference, texture, nitrite, nitrate, bioamine and N-nitriamine content of the impact of the product to improve the quality of the product.
1 materials and methods
1.1 materials and reagents
fresh pig hind legs meat, pig fat meat purchased in Tianjin Corning Meat Products Co., Ltd.; The 15 lactic acid fermentation agents used are shown in Table 1.
MrS solid culture medium Beijing Soleibao Technology Co., Ltd.; acetylene, dichloromethane (all chromatography purity), sodium chloride, sodium water-free sulfate, boric acid (all analyzed pure) and other Tianjin Windboat Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.; Standard and 9 n-nitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, N-methyleththilamine (N-nitrosomethylethylamine, NMEA), N-diaziobutiamine (N-nitrosoditeylamide, NDBA), N-di-dehydrogenaridyamine (N-nitroselamine, NDPA), N-nitrosilamine N-nitropyrpyridine, NPYR, N-nitrosomorphline, N-nitrosomorphline, NMOR, and N-nitrosidine (N-nitrosodipheny, NDPheA) are standard for Sigma Corporation of the United States.
1.2 instruments and equipment
7890A gas chromatography (with nitrogen phosphos detector), 1200 high-efficiency liquid chromatography (with ULTRA-violet absorption detector) Agilent Corporation of the United States; Device Ohaus, USA; CM-5 Chromatic Difference Instrument Japan Konica-Menunda Company; TA-XT plus mass iotyper UK Stable Micro Systems Company; RE-2000A rotating evaporator Shanghai Yarong Biochemical Instrument Factory; DW-5120 Cryogenic Pump Shanghai Zhenjie Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd.; ZXSD-B1090 thermostat culture box Shanghai Boson Equipment Co., Ltd.; BJJr-82, BVBJ-30F vacuum mixer, BYXX-50 smoker Zhejiang Jiaxing Aibo Industrial Co., Ltd.
1.3.1 experimental scheme and red intestine processing process
groups of red intestine raw materials and production processes are:
1) pickled: pig leg meat 600 g, wine 15 g, salt 21 g, glucose 3 g, white sugar 3 g, compound phosphate 3 g, sodium ascorbic acid 0.412 5 g, nitric acid .112 5 g (based on the total quality of pig's hind legs and fat, add 0.15 g/kg), water 30 mL, stir the above material simen, place in a refrigerator of 4 degrees C marinat editing 20 h;
2) mixed enemas: add fat to the marinated meat 150 g, starch 60 g, garlic 15 g white pepper 1.8 g, g. Eggs 60 g, ice water 120 g, fully mixed with a vacuum mixer enema (the experimental group of 15 lactic acid fermentation agent inthetatotic 107 CFU/g inoculated with 107 CFU/g to the mixed meat filling, blank control (CK) group does not pick up bacteria);
3) fermentation: the well-fed experimental group red intestine sidosido under 35 degrees C, 80% humidity conditions fermentation 1 2 h, sampling and measuring the number of lactic acid bacteria and the total number of bacteria (CK group is not fermented);
4) cooked: the fermented experimental group and CK group of red intestines cooked in a smoker, cooked parameters are: dry: 70 degrees C, 60 min; Samples measured the sensory, pH, elasticity, redness (a?), nitrites, 8 bioamines and 9 N-nitrosamines of the finished product.
1.3.2 index measurement
220.127.116.11 sensory assessment
due to the number of groups, so the selection of 10 sensory assessors, through 16 groups of red intestine finished products for product evaluation, selected 6 relatively good taste, high acceptance of the group, and then these 6 groups to the table 2 criteria for specific scoring.
reference to GB 4789.35 - 2016 "Food Safety National Standard Food Microbiology Test Lactobacillus Test" .
18.104.22.168 bacteria total determination
reference to GB 4789.2 - 2016 "Food Safety National Food Microbiology Test Total Number of Colonies" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.214.171.124 pH measurement
by reference to GB 5009.237-2016 "National Food Safety Standard Food PH Measurement" .
126.96.36.199 chromatic aberration determination
the white fat in the red intestine is removed, the rest is crushed and measured in the chromatic aberration meter.
188.8.131.52 elastic determination
cut the red intestine into a small square of 1 cm square, using the P35 probe of the mass iograph to determine elasticity, the specific measurement parameters are: pre-measurement rate of 1 mm/s, medium rate 1 mm/s, after measurement rate of 1 mm/s, displacement distance of 5 mm, displacement time 5 s, trigger force 5 g.
184.108.40.206 nitrate and nitrite content determination
with reference to Li Xiuming and other capillary electrophoresis method simultaneously to determine nitrate and nitrite content.
220.127.116.11 bioamine content determination
reference to GB 5009.208-2016 "The determination of bioamines in the national standard food for food safety" .
18.104.22.168N-nitrosamine content determination
using GB 5009.26-2016 "Determination of N-nitrosamines in national food safety" to extract, extract and purify, concentrate 0.45 m filter film, and quantify 9 n-n-nitrosamines using a gas chromatography.
1.4 data processing
using Microsoft Excel 2010 software to calculate the mean and standard deviation, using Statistix 8.1 software for significant analysis, Sigma Plot 10.0 software illustration.
2 results and analysis
2.116 groups of red intestine sensory evaluation
from 16 groups of red intestine screening to get a relatively good taste group of 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and CK groups, the other groups of red intestine taste acid, odor is heavy, for the non-fermentation process of red intestine, fermentation on the product flavor of the product is more serious.