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    Home > Food News > Enzyme News > The appropriate selection and efficient use of enzymes.

    The appropriate selection and efficient use of enzymes.

    • Last Update: 2020-07-29
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    OA_show ('533'); Most of the enzymes applied in the

    industry are hydrolysis enzymes, according to the different substrates, can be divided into amylase, protease, lipase, pectinase, glutamate, cellulase, phytoase, rnacyse and other 2 substrate-specific addition of non-amyloid polyglyenzyme in the diet, on the one hand, can break the cell wall cell cellulose, hemicellulose and pectinand

    , enzymes and their action

    enzymes are a biochemical reaction of living cells by the protein catalyst, in the body of animals in the digestion and metabolism process plays a very important role

    Enzymes in biochemical metabolic pathways in organisms can be divided into six categories: oxidizing reductase, transfer enzymes, hydrolyzed enzymes, cracking enzymes, isomesandase and synthases

    Most of the enzymes used in industry are hydrolysis enzymes, which can be divided into amylase, protease, lipase, pectin enzyme, glutase, beta-glucanase, cellulase, phytoase, rnanuclease, etc

    according to the difference seground

    Enzymes that animals can secrete into the digestive tract mainly belong to proteases, lipases and carbohydrate enzymes

    Under the action of digestive enzymes, the substrate macromolecules (such as protein, fat, polysaccharides, etc.) degrade into small molecules that are easily absorbed, such as oligopeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, etc

    feed enzymes can be broadly divided into digestive enzymes and non-digestion enzymes

    Non-digestion enzymes refer to the enzymes that animals themselves cannot secrete into the digestive tract, which can digest substances that cannot be digested by animals themselves or degrade some anti-nutritional factors, mainly cellulose enzymes, xylitose, beta-glucanase, phytose, pectinase and so on

    Digestive enzymes are amylases, proteases and lipases that animals themselves can secrete

    enzyme action characteristics: 1 high efficiency

    Enzyme-induced reactions can be carried out efficiently at room temperature and normal acidity, and the catalytic capacity of enzymes is tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of times higher than that of conventional catalysts; Enzymes are highly specific to substrates and can only act on specific compounds, specific chemical bonds, or specific chemical reactions

    For example, alpha-amylase can only hydrolysis alpha-1, 4 glycoside bonds in starch, phytic acid can only be degraded by phytoase

    second,

    the necessity of using enzymes

    1

    Piglets, chicks in the body digestive enzyme secretion is insufficient

    pig's gastrointestinal digestive enzymes in addition to lactase in 2 weeks or so began to decline, the secretion of other enzymes in the birth with the increase of age, most in 5 weeks or so to reach the peak, only the protein enzyme in about 3 weeks of age can reach the maximum

    In order to shorten the breeding cycle of sows and make piglets adapt to plant protein diet as early as possible, early weaning and even ultra-early weaning is widely implemented in pig production, but early weaning produces obvious stress, adverse effects on digestive system development and digestive enzyme secretion, digestive enzyme secretion is rapidly reduced, weaning 2 weeks later gradually recover and rise

    Insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes within two weeks after weaning is one of the main factors in the growth block of weaned piglets

    Adding enzyme preparation sourcing pig food is one of the necessary and effective measures to reduce weaning stress, avoid growth blocking and improve piglet growth performance

    most digestive enzymes in chicks only develop to peak at about 2 weeks old, and individual (e.g

    lipase) to about 21 days old

    Noy et al

    (1995) found that the chicks were 50 times older than the 4-day-old trypsin secreted by the 21-day-old duodenum

    From 4 days to 21 days old, the digestion rate of small intestine nitrogen increased from 78% to 92%

    The activity of amylase in the 21st age was 100 times that of the 4-day age, and the digestion rate of starch increased from 82% of the age of 4 to 89% of the age of 21

    Therefore, the insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes is one of the main limiting factors for feed utilization in chicks

    2

    Limitations of feed composition by animal digestion and absorption

    proteininin in feed needs to be degraded by proteases and peptidease into peptides and amino acids before they can be used by livestock and poultry

    Some anti-nutrient factors can hinder the digestion of proteins, such as phytic acid and protein binding to form a complex, raw soybeans and their pie contained in trypsin inhibitors and plant coagulation can reduce the activity of trypsin and tryponoid lactine and cause pancreatic hypertrophy, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of feed protein and energy

    fat from feed raw materials and vegetable oils or animal fats added to feed are emulsified in the intestines before they are fully exposed to trypsase for digestion and absorption

    Unsaturated fatty acids are conducive to the formation of celiac particles

    The digestion and absorption rate of vegetable oil with high content of unsaturated fatty acids is higher than that of animal oil, and the digestion and absorption rate of lard in animal oil is higher than that of butter

    The digestion and absorption of saturated fatty acids in young animals is poor, and increases with the increase of weekly age

    feed polysaccharides can be divided into nutrient polysaccharides and structural polysaccharides

    Nutritional polysaccharides are mainly starch and glycogen, structural polysaccharides in plant feed also refers to non-starch polysaccharides, mainly plant cell wall composition, including cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin

    Hemicellulose also includes beta-glucan, arabic wood polysaccharides, glutainth, etc

    Baramy (e.g

    corn, sorghum, wheat and barley) is the main source of carbohydrate in livestock feed, the main ingredient is starch, non-starch polysaccharides content is also high

    Non-starch polysaccharides in legume feed feed raw materials are mainly pectin and cellulose

    Non-starch polysaccharides at present can be said to affect the digestion and utilization of feed organic matter the most important factors, including soluble non-starch polysaccharides in the animal digestive tract to increase the viscosity of the diet, hinder the use of energy, amino acids and other nutrients, on the single stomach of the animal to produce anti-nutrition effect

    Non-ruminants can not secrete cellulase, beta-glucanse, xylitose, pectinase, cellulose, pectin and most of the hemicellulose can only be limited by microorganisms

    Using foreign-source polysaccharides produced by microorganisms added to the feed can help livestock and poultry digest the use of these non-starch polysaccharides, such as beta-glucanase hydrolysis beta-glucan, xylitose can hydrolysis alacite, thereby reducing its anti-nutritional effects and improve animal production performance

    phytic acid (inositol-6-phosphate) is present in all plant feeds

    The content of phytic acid state phosphorus generally accounts for 60% to 80% of the total phosphorus

    Phytic acid can also be combined with mineral elements, proteins and some digestive enzymes to reduce the utilization of these nutrients or the activity of enzymes

    Non-ruminants only digest a small amount of phytoase secreted by the skin cells in the digestive tract, and the microbes in the intestines can produce a small amount

    The utilization rate of phytic acid phosphorus in feed was very low, less than 10%

    3

    The application effect of the enzyme preparation

    the industrial formulation of the enzyme is called the enzyme preparation, which is easier to obtain and convenient to apply than the pure enzyme

    There are about 20 kinds of enzymes produced in industrial production

    1

    Improve feed utilization, improve the performance of livestock and poultry production

    the development of digestive enzymes in young animals is not perfect, animals in old age digestive enzyme secretion ability is reduced, animals after being affected by stress or disease caused digestive enzyme secretion disorders

    In these cases, the exogenous digestive enzyme can supplement the deficiency of endogenous enzymes, enhance the digestion and absorption of feed nutrients, improve the productivity of livestock and poultry and feed conversion efficiency

    wheat grains (wheat, barley, rye and black wheat) endosperm cell walls contain soluble non-starch polysaccharides, these soluble non-starch polysaccharides increase the viscosity of the diet, the circulation and digestion rate of the meal, so these grains are also known as sticky grains; Adding non-starch polysaccharide in the diet, on the one hand, can break the cell wall cell cell cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin and other nutrients, so that digestive enzymes quickly and fully contact feed nutrients, so that nutrients are better used; Corn and sorghum are non-viscous or low-viscous grains, of which non-starch polysaccharides are low

    The addition of non-starch polysaccharide in these grain-based grains can reduce the variation of its nutritional value, improve the breeding effect and the neatness of livestock and poultry groups, and increase economic benefits

    Improve feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution

    adding enzymes to diet can improve nutrient utilization, reduce the excretion of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in manure, and reduce environmental pollution

    Adding non-starch polysaccharide to diet containing viscous grains can reduce the viscosity of eating slugs and excreta, improve eggshell cleanliness in poultry, avoid high water content and the proliferation of harmful bacteria, and improve the environment of poultry

    Adding phytoase can reduce phosphorus content by 20% to 50% in excreta, and also improve the utilization rate of nitrogen

    Most of the enzymes applied in the

    industry are hydrolysis enzymes, according to the different substrates, can be divided into amylase, protease, lipase, pectinase, glutamate, cellulase, phytoase, rnacyse and other 2 substrate-specific addition of non-amyloid polyglyenzyme in the diet, on the one hand, can break the cell wall cell cellulose, hemicellulose and pectinand

    , enzymes and their action

    enzymes are a biochemical reaction of living cells by the protein catalyst, in the body of animals in the digestion and metabolism process plays a very important role

    Enzymes in biochemical metabolic pathways in organisms can be divided into six categories: oxidizing reductase, transfer enzymes, hydrolyzed enzymes, cracking enzymes, isomesandase and synthases

    Most of the enzymes used in industry are hydrolysis enzymes, which can be divided into amylase, protease, lipase, pectin enzyme, glutase, beta-glucanase, cellulase, phytoase, rnanuclease, etc

    according to the difference seground

    Enzymes that animals can secrete into the digestive tract mainly belong to proteases, lipases and carbohydrate enzymes

    Under the action of digestive enzymes, the substrate macromolecules (such as protein, fat, polysaccharides, etc.) degrade into small molecules that are easily absorbed, such as oligopeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, etc

    feed enzymes can be broadly divided into digestive enzymes and non-digestion enzymes

    Non-digestion enzymes refer to the enzymes that animals themselves cannot secrete into the digestive tract, which can digest substances that cannot be digested by animals themselves or degrade some anti-nutritional factors, mainly cellulose enzymes, xylitose, beta-glucanase, phytose, pectinase and so on

    Digestive enzymes are amylases, proteases and lipases that animals themselves can secrete

    enzyme action characteristics: 1 high efficiency

    Enzyme-induced reactions can be carried out efficiently at room temperature and normal acidity, and the catalytic capacity of enzymes is tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of times higher than that of conventional catalysts; Enzymes are highly specific to substrates and can only act on specific compounds, specific chemical bonds, or specific chemical reactions

    For example, alpha-amylase can only hydrolysis alpha-1, 4 glycoside bonds in starch, phytic acid can only be degraded by phytoase

    second,

    the necessity of using enzymes

    1

    Piglets, chicks in the body digestive enzyme secretion is insufficient

    pig's gastrointestinal digestive enzymes in addition to lactase in 2 weeks or so began to decline, the secretion of other enzymes in the birth with the increase of age, most in 5 weeks or so to reach the peak, only the protein enzyme in about 3 weeks of age can reach the maximum

    In order to shorten the breeding cycle of sows and make piglets adapt to plant protein diet as early as possible, early weaning and even ultra-early weaning is widely implemented in pig production, but early weaning produces obvious stress, adverse effects on digestive system development and digestive enzyme secretion, digestive enzyme secretion is rapidly reduced, weaning 2 weeks later gradually recover and rise

    Insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes within two weeks after weaning is one of the main factors in the growth block of weaned piglets

    Adding enzyme preparation sourcing pig food is one of the necessary and effective measures to reduce weaning stress, avoid growth blocking and improve piglet growth performance

    most digestive enzymes in chicks only develop to peak at about 2 weeks old, and individual (e.g

    lipase) to about 21 days old

    Noy et al

    (1995) found that the chicks were 50 times older than the 4-day-old trypsin secreted by the 21-day-old duodenum

    From 4 days to 21 days old, the digestion rate of small intestine nitrogen increased from 78% to 92%

    The activity of amylase in the 21st age was 100 times that of the 4-day age, and the digestion rate of starch increased from 82% of the age of 4 to 89% of the age of 21

    Therefore, the insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes is one of the main limiting factors for feed utilization in chicks

    2

    Limitations of feed composition by animal digestion and absorption

    proteininin in feed needs to be degraded by proteases and peptidease into peptides and amino acids before they can be used by livestock and poultry

    Some anti-nutrient factors can hinder the digestion of proteins, such as phytic acid and protein binding to form a complex, raw soybeans and their pie contained in trypsin inhibitors and plant coagulation can reduce the activity of trypsin and tryponoid lactine and cause pancreatic hypertrophy, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of feed protein and energy

    fat from feed raw materials and vegetable oils or animal fats added to feed are emulsified in the intestines before they are fully exposed to trypsase for digestion and absorption

    Unsaturated fatty acids are conducive to the formation of celiac particles

    The digestion and absorption rate of vegetable oil with high content of unsaturated fatty acids is higher than that of animal oil, and the digestion and absorption rate of lard in animal oil is higher than that of butter

    The digestion and absorption of saturated fatty acids in young animals is poor, and increases with the increase of weekly age

    feed polysaccharides can be divided into nutrient polysaccharides and structural polysaccharides

    Nutritional polysaccharides are mainly starch and glycogen, structural polysaccharides in plant feed also refers to non-starch polysaccharides, mainly plant cell wall composition, including cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin

    Hemicellulose also includes beta-glucan, arabic wood polysaccharides, glutainth, etc

    Baramy (e.g

    corn, sorghum, wheat and barley) is the main source of carbohydrate in livestock feed, the main ingredient is starch, non-starch polysaccharides content is also high

    Non-starch polysaccharides in legume feed feed raw materials are mainly pectin and cellulose

    Non-starch polysaccharides at present can be said to affect the digestion and utilization of feed organic matter the most important factors, including soluble non-starch polysaccharides in the animal digestive tract to increase the viscosity of the diet, hinder the use of energy, amino acids and other nutrients, on the single stomach of the animal to produce anti-nutrition effect

    Non-ruminants can not secrete cellulase, beta-glucanse, xylitose, pectinase, cellulose, pectin and most of the hemicellulose can only be limited by microorganisms

    Using foreign-source polysaccharides produced by microorganisms added to the feed can help livestock and poultry digest the use of these non-starch polysaccharides, such as beta-glucanase hydrolysis beta-glucan, xylitose can hydrolysis alacite, thereby reducing its anti-nutritional effects and improve animal production performance

    phytic acid (inositol-6-phosphate) is present in all plant feeds

    The content of phytic acid state phosphorus generally accounts for 60% to 80% of the total phosphorus

    Phytic acid can also be combined with mineral elements, proteins and some digestive enzymes to reduce the utilization of these nutrients or the activity of enzymes

    Non-ruminants only digest a small amount of phytoase secreted by the skin cells in the digestive tract, and the microbes in the intestines can produce a small amount

    The utilization rate of phytic acid phosphorus in feed was very low, less than 10%

    3

    The application effect of the enzyme preparation

    the industrial formulation of the enzyme is called the enzyme preparation, which is easier to obtain and convenient to apply than the pure enzyme

    There are about 20 kinds of enzymes produced in industrial production

    1

    Change.
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